A common attitude among scientists is that they are not responsible for what people do with their discoveries. Facts are facts, after all, and nuclear energy can be used to power a city as well as destroy it. Is this a truism or a half-truth? Are there cases where a scientist is responsible for what he or she proclaims as a fact about the world? In its continuing celebration of Darwin, Science magazine printed an article about “Darwin’s Originality” by Peter J. Bowler.1 This philosopher from Queen’s University of Belfast described how Darwin’s theory of evolution had “disturbing” ramifications. “In this essay,” he began, “I argue that Darwin was truly original in his thinking, and I support this claim by addressing the related issue of defining just why the theory was so disturbing to his contemporaries.” He used the word disturbing five more times. Bowler elaborated on what was most disturbing. It’s not that Darwin invented or discovered evolution – evolutionary thinking was already in the air in Victorian Britain. “Most thinkers—including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and [Robert] Chambers—took it for granted that the development of life on earth represents the unfolding of a coherent plan aimed at a predetermined goal,” he said. Darwin was different. Darwin attributed all the “unfolding” (which is what evolution means) to result from the environment. His critics understood what this implied:Darwin’s world view was profoundly different because he argued that the adaptation of populations to their local environment was the sole cause of transmutation. Many people found it hard to see natural selection as the agent of either divine benevolence or of a rationally structured cosmic teleology. Selection adapted species to an ever-changing environment, and it did so by killing off useless variations in a ruthless “struggle for existence.” This did not seem the kind of process that would be instituted by a benevolent God, especially because its essentially “selfish” nature meant that a parasitic way of life was a perfectly natural adaptive response in some circumstances. More seriously for the idea of cosmic teleology, Darwin’s supposition that the production of the individual variants in a population was essentially undirected ruled out any possibility that evolution could be shaped by a predetermined developmental trend. There was no obvious goal toward which it was aimed, and it did not produce an orderly pattern of relations between species. The accusation that the theory depended on “random” variation indicated the concerns of his opponents on this score. As Darwin himself made clear, variation was certainly caused by something (later identified as genetic mutations), but it was not aimed in any one direction and, thus, left adaptive evolution essentially open-ended.Bowler delved into the history behind this idea, the responses of Darwin’s contemporaries, the battle over natural theology, the Victorian mindset, motivations and influences in Darwin’s life, the 19th-century debates on teleology vs the undirected character of natural selection, and the reluctance with which Darwinism became accepted in the scientific community. The reader might be tempted to ask whether the discussion is merely academic. If, after all, this is the way the world works, all Darwin was doing was lifting a corner of the veil. This is reality. Mankind will just to have to learn to deal with it. In his final section, “The Struggle for Existence,” Bowler is not so keen to let Darwin and the modern Darwinists off the hook with a “Get out of jail free” card just for being scientists. In the first place, the Malthusian idea of struggle for existence, which was pervasive in Victorian England, could have been applied in different ways. Bowler argues that Spencer applied it to individual effort to succeed. “Much of what later became known as ‘social Darwinism’ was, in fact, Spencerian social Lamarckism expressed in the terminology of struggle popularized by Darwin,” he claimed. What Darwin did, though, was make this struggle metaphor something ruthless and impersonal:This point is important in the context of the charge raised by modern opponents of Darwinism that the theory is responsible for the appearance of a whole range of unpleasant social policies based on struggle. Darwin exploited the idea of the struggle for existence in a way that was unique until paralleled by Wallace nearly 20 years later. Their theory certainly fed into the movements that led toward various kinds of social Darwinism, but it was not the only vehicle for that transition in the late 19th century. It did, however, highlight the harsher aspects of the consequences of struggle. The potential implications were drawn out even more clearly when Galton argued that it would be necessary to apply artificial selection to the human race in order to prevent “unfit” individuals from reproducing and undermining the biological health of the population. This was the eugenics program, and in its most extreme manifestation at the hands of the Nazis, it led not just to the sterilization but also to the actual elimination of those unfortunates deemed unfit by the state. Did Darwin’s emphasis on the natural elimination of maladaptive variants help to create a climate of opinion in which such atrocities became possible? It has to be admitted that, by making death itself a creative force in nature, Darwin introduced a new and profoundly disturbing insight into the world, an insight that seems to have resonated with the thinking of many who did not understand or accept the details of his theory.Darwin himself, of course, could not have known what was coming. Lest anyone misunderstand, Bowler states clearly that “Darwinism was not ‘responsible’ for social Darwinism or eugenics in any simple way.” In fact, some eugenicists and social Darwinists denied the mechanism of natural selection. The Nazis did not want to believe that Aryans had evolved from apes. There were a variety of views about evolution and the struggle for existence. Nevertheless, Bowler is not ready to let Darwin off the hook so easily:But by proposing that evolution worked primarily through the elimination of useless variants, Darwin created an image that could all too easily be exploited by those who wanted the human race to conform to their own pre-existing ideals. In the same way, his popularization of the struggle metaphor focused attention onto the individualistic aspects of Spencer’s philosophy.This brings us back to the original question: can scientists distance themselves from their findings? Keep in mind that Darwinism goes beyond a discovery of facts about the living world. The Origin did not really catalog any new facts of biology that were not already known. What he did was put them together into “one long argument” that presented an entire history of life, a world view, that generated all the variety of living organisms via selfishness and struggle. When any scientist proposes to change the way we think about the world, Bowler argues that he or she must be willing to take responsibility for the consequences. Let’s listen to his closing paragraph, where he generalizes the Darwin saga to all of science.Modern science recognizes the importance of Darwin’s key insights when used as a way of explaining countless otherwise mysterious aspects of the natural world. But some of those insights came from sources with profoundly disturbing implications, and many historians now recognize that the theory, in turn, played into the way those implications were developed by later generations. This is not a simple matter of science being “misused” by social commentators, because Darwin’s theorizing would almost certainly have been different had he not drawn inspiration from social, as well as scientific, influences. We may well feel uncomfortable with those aspects of his theory today, especially in light of their subsequent applications to human affairs. But if we accept science’s power to upset the traditional foundations of how we think about the world, we should also accept its potential to interact with moral values.Let’s apply what Bowler just said to another current issue. Robert Roy Britt wrote on January 6 in Live Science that man may be causing “Reverse evolution” by culling the biggest trophy animals out of populations. Forward and reverse, however, only makes sense within a concept of progress. “Survival of the smallest is not exactly what Darwin had in mind, but in some animals species, humans may be forcing a smaller-is-better scenario, and the ultimate outcome may be species demise.” It’s a macho thing to go for the big trophy. Britt seemed to dodge the question though, whether in evolutionary terms this is good or bad, though he spoke of elephant poaching as a “dastardly” form of selection. His article relates to a paper in PNAS that shows “Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild.”2 The authors warned that human trophy hunting eliminates the big animals, and “might imperil populations, industries, and ecosystems.” National Geographic news chimed in, asking if hunters are speeding up the evolution of trophy prey. It seems they can’t decide if evolution is going in forward or reverse. Either way, there seemed to be an implicit call to do something moral about it. One natural history museum curator said that sustainable management “requires that people stop preferentially removing the larger and most [fertile] animals from populations, and focus more on a strategy that preserves the historic size-structure of the species.” He left it unexplained why a theory of undirected change over time in a struggle for existence and the pursuit of fitness would require one species to care about another species on which it does not depend; see the 11/21/2008 entry.1. Peter J. Bowler, “Darwin’s Originality,” Science, 9 January 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5911, pp. 223-226, DOI: 10.1126/science.1160332.2. Darimont et al, “Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Published online before print January 12, 2009, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809235106.First, regarding the hunting article, care for the ecology makes perfect sense to Christians, who believe humans are God’s stewards to care for the animals and plants, because they display God’s creativity and sovereignty. It makes no sense in a Darwinian world view. Trophy hunting just shows that humans are more fit. Lots of animals get smaller through evolution. So what? If you believe in an undirected process, with no morals and values, who cares if the big bucks are on the decline? Must be consistent. No fair borrowing Christian ideals. Remember what Fern Wickson told Nature? (11/09/2008) “If nature is somewhere that humans are not, we lose sight of the fact that we are just another species intimately intertwined in the complex web of biological systems on this planet. However, if we place ourselves within a definition of nature, the definition then becomes essentially meaningless by extending to everything on Earth.” Now, regarding Bowler’s essay, wow. Did you get that? The Darwin Party officials usually turn beet red when anyone tries to link their beliefs to the Holocaust. They became unglued when Expelled drew a connection. Now, this philosopher, writing in Science, said the same thing. Understand that Richard Weikart and the other commentators in the film did not make any kind of simplistic linkage. They did not blame Darwin for the Holocaust, or say that Hitler’s primary motivation came from Darwin’s book, or any such thing. They said that Darwin’s world view in which nature ruthlessly destroys the “unfit” in an unending struggle for existence was used by later political leaders to justify their atrocities as a rational outworking of the laws of nature. That’s what Bowler is admitting here. Come on, Eugenie and Ken and Barbara and all you other Darwin attack dogs: unleash your venom on this guy, too. He doesn’t understand what a sweet, gentle, loving theory Darwinism is. Notice that Bowler called Darwinism a world view, not a scientific theory. He spoke of Darwin’s supposition that the world operated in an undirected manner. He depicted Darwin applying a metaphor of struggle in a particular way. These are instances of the use of scientific rhetoric, not empiricism. The rhetorical character of Darwin’s presentation of natural selection in The Origin has been described in an excellent interview by John Angus Campbell, PhD in Rhetoric, one of the founders of a post-Kuhnian discipline called the Rhetoric of Science. The recorded interview is available from Access Research Network and is well worth watching and thinking about. It will give you a whole new understanding of the Darwinian revolution. The slogan ideas have consequences is so commonplace, we won’t harp on it. Instead, we’ll offer the hard core Darwinists a proposition. We know you are never going to change your world view, but like it or not, you know that Darwinism was used by some of the worst despots in the 20th century to wipe out millions of people. We know you don’t want that to happen again. To save the world from the next Pol Pot, Mao or Stalin, how about joining with us in promoting Christianity as an antidote to the selfish tendencies of humans? You don’t have to believe it, but certainly you can see in retrospect that mankind needs such a world view to provide a moral foundation for the life, liberty and happiness that you enjoy so much. After all, even Richard Dawkins admitted he would rather live in a Christian society than a Darwinian one. You guys are obligated to think Christianity provides fitness, because you believe religion evolved (05/27/2008, 10/26/2008). So here’s our proposition: join a Christian missions team and help spread the gospel. 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24 November 2011 While it is unlikely that a legally binding deal on reducing carbon emissions will be struck, COP 17 should build on the Bali Roadmap and put into effect the Cancun Agreements, says Edna Molewa, leader of South Africa’s negotiating team at the UN climate summit. With the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change set to kick off in Durban on Monday, the South African negotiating team is putting the finishing touches to its preparatory work for the critical gathering. Environmental and Water Affairs Minister Edna Molewa and her International Relations and Cooperation counterpart, Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, told journalists in Durban on Wednesday that the country was ready to host the event, which will see over 20 000 delegates descend on Durban. While Molewa leads SA’s negotiating team, Nkoana-Mashabane will be taking over as president of COP 17.No legally binding outcome likely Molewa’s team has overseen the development, compilation and lobbying of the South African COP 17 negotiation position, through wide consultation with stakeholders including academics, business and non-profit organisations. The primary objective of the conference would be to reach an agreement on how effectively to tackle climate change at a global level in a fair manner, thus addressing the threats it posed to human development and growth, Molewa said. She said no legally binding agreement would likely be reached on cutting down on emissions, and the outcome should rather build on the Bali Roadmap of 2007 as well as put into effect the Cancun Agreements of 2010.Cancun Agreements, Bali Roadmap President Jacob Zuma, outlining South Africa’s vision for the conference earlier this week, said it was crucial for COP 17 to ensure that the Cancun Agreements, which included the establishment of a Green Climate Fund, were operationalised. The President said developing countries demanded a prompt start for the Fund through early initial capitalisation. For Durban to be successful, Zuma said, the parties then had to deal with the outstanding political issues remaining from the Bali Roadmap of 2007. This meant finding a resolution to the issue of the second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, and agreeing on the legal nature of a future climate change system. Zuma added that adaptation was another essential element of the outcome of COP 17, as it was a key priority for many developing countries, particularly small island developing states, least developed countries, and Africa. SAinfo reporter and BuaNews
Trauma in Young Children Under 4-Years of Age: Attachment, Neurobiology, & InterventionsMark your calendars for what’s next in our 2014 MFLN Family Development Webinar Series!Date: Thursday, April 3, 2014Time: 11 a.m. – 1 p.m. EasternLocation: Trauma in Young Children Under 4-Years of Age: Attachment, Neurobiology, and InterventionsThis 2 hour webinar, presented by Dr. Kimberly Renk, explores how young children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of trauma, especially when their relationships with caregivers are affected. This webinar will examine the characteristics of trauma in young children who are 4-years of age and younger. In particular, formal diagnostic criteria as well as other signs and symptoms of trauma in young children will be discussed. Further, the neurobiological underpinnings of traumatic experiences for young children will be explored, particularly with regard to potential effects on future development. Finally, evidence-based interventions that may be useful for remediating the effects of trauma for young children and their families will be examined.Remember, we offer 2.0 National Association of Social Worker CE credits for many of our webinars, click here to learn more. For more information on future presentations in the 2014 Family Development webinar series, please visit our professional development website or connect with us via social media for announcements: Facebook & Twitter.
Looking for more video tutorials? Check these out.Video Tutorial: Which Frame Rate Should You Be Using?Video Tutorial: How to Morph Graphics Using Adobe After EffectsVideo Editing 101: Using The J, K, and L Key Editing ShortcutsHow to Create a Stop-Motion Paper CrumpleHow to Create a Scribble Animation in After Effects Bring some movement into your video projects and guide your viewer’s eye with this fun motion graphics technique.Speed lines serve a number of purposes. Not only do they indicate motion, they also draw a viewer’s eye into a specific area of the frame. Used in conjunction with sound effects and a few other animation tricks, they can give your shot an extra punch.In this tutorial, we’re going to take a closer look at how to create these speed lines using Adobe After Effects. Create the ShapeFirst, I will create just one line. I’ll use the pen tool to draw out a narrow triangle shape, with the tip of the triangle in the center of the frame. To get the vertices exactly where I want them, I’ll use Rulers and Guides. I don’t need to worry about getting the length and width of the shape perfect, as I can customize these attributes later. With the Pan Behind tool, I’ll place the shape’s anchor point in the center of the frame as well.Add a RepeaterTo create multiple lines, I’ll add a Repeater. You can find the Repeater by clicking on the Add button just to the right of Contents. (It’s important to place the Repeater under the shape group and not inside it.)Now I’ll set the number of copies to 20. To line up the shapes, I will open up the transformation attributes and bring the X position from 100 to 0. Now I can set the rotation of the Repeater to 20 degrees to get my speed line circle in place. I’m finished with the Repeater, so I’ll close the menu to avoid confusion when working with other properties.Position the LinesNext, to position the elements, I’ll turn on the baby reaction video layer. I can move the speed lines circle directly over the baby’s face using the main position attribute of the shape layer. To spread out the circle, I’ll open up the transformation options of the individual shape element and drag the Y position up. This will be the same attribute I animate to bring the lines in and out of frame. To adjust the width and length of the lines, I can change the X and Y scaling of the shape element. To adjust the width and length of the circle as a whole, I can change the X and Y scaling of the shape layer. Now I’m ready to bring the lines to life.Bring the Lines to LifeFinally, I’m ready to animate my lines. I want to match the animation of my speed lines to the movement of my digital zoom. To do this, I’ll add keyframes to the Y position of the speed line shape element to start and end around the same time as the zoom on the baby’s face. I’ll add Easy Ease to the keyframes to help smooth the animation out.To really spice things up, I’ll add a Wiggle Path and Wiggle Transform animator just below the Repeater. Even though the speed lines are only up for a brief second, these animators will add detail. To wiggle the path, I’ll adjust the Size and Wiggles/Second attributes. This will bring movement to the edges of each line shape. Wiggle Transform will allow me to offset and bring movement to just the Y position of the lines. To do this, I’ll slightly adjust the Y position of Wiggle Transform and then fine-tune the Wiggles/Second.Voilà! Now I have anime-style speed lines to spice up my shots. Interested in the tracks we used to make this video?“Outrun” by Aulx Studio“Jovian Night” by Bedlake“Laidback Summer Vibe” by Mattijs Muller“Sudden Impulse” by Origami Pigeon“Coming Alive” by Monad
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Men’s volleyball coach Pete Hanson has more than 600 wins and one national title in his 30 years with the Buckeyes.Credit: Courtesy of OSU AthleticsAs his players shook hands following a sweep of IPFW on Friday, Ohio State men’s volleyball coach Pete Hanson had claimed the 603rd win of his career.Hanson, who has coached the Buckeyes for 30 years, holds a career record of 603-324. Hanson and the No. 11 Buckeyes have passed several milestones this season, including the program’s 1,000th overall win and its 500th victory at St. John Arena. Hanson’s OSU career spans 18 20-plus win seasons, 10 national semifinal appearances, a runner-up finish and one national championship.Before beginning his illustrious coaching career, Hanson played volleyball at the collegiate level at Kellogg Community College in Michigan then spent his last two years at Ball State University, up until 1979. Upon graduation, Hanson took his first position as an assistant coach for Ball State men’s volleyball team.He then spent time as a women’s assistant and head coach with Wyoming before joining the Buckeyes’ men’s program in 1985.“I just felt like it would be a great way to give back and to help continue to grow men’s volleyball, and so it kind of led me here and I have been here for 30 years,” Hanson said.Hanson said he thinks the most passionate aspect of his job is watching young players succeed.“The thing that keeps me coming in every day and keeps me looking forward to next year is to bring in a young man and to convince him that Ohio State would be a great place for him to go to school, to get his education, to play volleyball, and then to help him through that journey,” Hanson said. “At the end of the day when they walk out of here with a degree in hand, and maybe they’ve already got a job lined up, that’s the really cool part. To think that myself, my two coaches and Ohio State had a part in that is a really, really neat feeling.”While the Buckeyes finished last season with a losing record for the first time since 1992, Hanson’s squad has started fresh in 2015 with an 11-3 overall record and a 5-1 mark in conference play.The ultimate goal he sets for his team is the same on the yearly basis: winning the national championship.“I think the long-term goal is to try to do the necessary things that are going to allow our team to compete for an elite championship and hopefully a national championship,” Hanson said. “Even though we’ve got this goal and 99.9 percent of the time we’re not going to reach it, it certainly is a goal worth having.”Hanson learned what it takes to make a championship run before he even joined the Division I volleyball ranks.“My senior year (at Ball State) we won the MIVA championship and qualified to go to the NCAA national championships,” Hanson said. “Just having successes along the way which is what we’re trying to do here with our guys, I was able to experience that and those are memories that I’ll have for a lifetime.”As he hunts for a second title as a coach, Hanson said he is grateful for his wife and two sons, ages 20 and 18, who have been supportive of his career.“There are times when you miss some of the kids’ activities and you’re not there at all the right times that you’d like to be,” Hanson said. “I think the big thing was that my wife and the two boys understood and they dealt with it as positively as they could.”Off of the court, Hanson enjoys playing golf in addition to spending time on the water.“Here in the past five to seven years, I’ve become really enamored with fly fishing,” Hanson said. “For the last six or seven summers, my wife and I go to Wyoming to visit one of her brothers, and he got me turned onto fly fishing in the backcountry. It is just the most relaxing and just a time that I can’t put a price on.”Hanson will have to put his next fishing trip on hold as the Buckeyes get set to take on Grand Canyon on Saturday and Sunday in Phoenix.
Arsenal midfielder Lucas Torreira has revealed he received a surprise phone call from Unai Emery during the World Cup in Russia.Emery, who was appointed manager of the Gunners at the end of last season phoned Torreira to personally persuade him to move to Arsenal.The Uruguay international confessed they were a host of teams interested in his services during the summer transfer window but he never thought he would move to England.However, one phone call from the former Paris Saint-Germain boss changed everything.Following his country’s exit from the World Cup the North London club didn’t waste any time signing the midfielder, securing him on a £22million deal.Premier League Betting: Match-day 5 Stuart Heath – September 14, 2019 Going into the Premier League’s match-day five with a gap already beginning to form at the top of the league. We will take a…“At the end of my last season at Sampdoria there were lots of teams being talked about,” Torreira told Arsenal media as quoted in the Mirror.“I never imagined coming here to England because it was mainly Italian clubs being mentioned.”“Before I left for the World cup I got a call from the coach which was a massive surprise for me. I knew that I had earned it because of all my hard work and everything that I had done. That phone call made me a happy man.”“It allowed me to relax too because it allowed me to focus all my attention on the national team and the World Cup. I’m so proud to be part of such an important team.”
KUSI Newsroom KUSI Newsroom, LA MESA (KUSI) — An investigation was underway Friday into the suspicious death of a man at Sharp Grossmont Hospital in La Mesa, police said.The 58-year-old patient died a little before 2 p.m. Thursday at the hospital on Grossmont Center Drive, La Mesa police Lt. Vince Brown said.Police did not disclose a reason the death was considered suspicious but said no hospital employees are considered suspects.“Hospital staff reported the incident to La Mesa Police and officers responded to the hospital … at approximately 1:58 p.m.,” Brown said.“Detectives were later called to the scene. No hospital employees are considered subjects in this investigation.”Police did not release any other details, including the name of the person who died, but asked anyone with information about the incident to call La Mesa police at (619) 667-1400, San Diego County Crime Stoppers at (888) 580- 8477 or contact the agency online at sdcrimestoppers.org. Tipsters may remain anonymous and could be eligible for a reward of up to $1,000. Posted: December 29, 2017 Updated: 4:07 PM December 29, 2017 Police investigating suspicious death of Sharp Grossmont Hospital patient Categories: Local San Diego News Tags: La Mesa Police, Sharp Grossmont Hospital FacebookTwitter
JSM Corp Ltd, which has Hard Rock CafÃ© franchisee in India, is planning to raise Rs. 200 crore from private equity investors. The funds raised would be used to expand the number of outlets and bring in more international brands.The company, which also runs popular restaurant chains California Pizza Kitchen and Shiro in India, is considering fund raising by older investors selling their shares. Lodha Capital Markets is acting as the company’s adviser. As part of the company’s expansion plans, JSM would launch popular Chinese food chain Panda Express in India by August 2016, the Mint reported.”About Rs. 150 crore will be raised primarily from new investors, while Rs. 50 crore will be a secondary transaction where the legacy investors will be brought over,” Jay Sing, co-founder and executive director of JSM, was quoted as saying by the publication.JSM Corp was founded by Jay Singh and Sanjay Mahtani in 2004. Some of the other brands of the company are The Big Kahuna, Ginger Tiger, dessert chain Pinkberry, street-food chain Plus91 and Asilo, which is a rooftop bar in Mumbai, according to the company’s website. Singh and Mahtani together hold 55 percent stake in JSM Corp, while the rest is owned by other investors.Azim Premji’s private equity arm, PremjiInvest, acquired 22 percent stake in JSM for about Rs. 150 crore four years ago. The same PE firm may put in additional funds, Singh was quoted as saying by the Mint.A report by consulting firm Grant Thornton India and the Federation of Indian Chambers and Commerce Industry (FICCI) said the Indian food and beverage industry will expand at a pace of 24 percent every year to reach Rs. 3.8 trillion in sales by March 2017.[1 lakh = 100,000 | 1 crore = 10 million | 100 crore = 1 billion]
– / 4Stages Repertory Theatre announced plans to build a three-stage, $30.5 million dollar complex in Montrose. Managing Director Mark Folkes said construction would begin this summer.“This is essentially a doubling in capacity as an organization,” said Folks. “We currently operate in just over 30,000 square feet in our home this move brings us just over 66,000 square feet.”The plan includes building from the ground up and renovating a warehouse they purchased from the Museum of Fine Arts last year.“It was used to store pieces of their permanent collection that were not on display at the museum,” said Folks. “We are re-purposing that warehouse basically to create the support system for the work that we do. So that will be the home of our production workshops, of our rehearsal and education spaces.”He said thankfully, the warehouse foundation is slightly raised. Because in the last three months, potential flooding has been a major topic of conversation.“We’ve been very thoughtful in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey about the design of the facility to ensure that the core of the infrastructure is not sitting on the first floor.” said Folks. “So, things like electrical systems that will live on the second and third story of the structure to protect should we face another catastrophic event like that in this city.”Stages plans to move to the new complex and re-open in fall 2019 without disruption to the performance schedule. Share To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: X Listen 00:00 /01:25