ENERGY SYSTEMS When the body starts to do physical activities a number of changes take place. The exact amount of change will depend on the intensity and duration of the activity. As mentioned in earlier topics, regular training will result in adaptation of our bodies. The type of training undertaken determines what adaptations or responses are effected. Most sports are a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic work. Training makes both energy systems better. However, the training is different for each. Aerobic respiration is the production of energy using oxygen: (C6H12O6 + O2-> CO2 + water +energy). Anaerobic respiration is the production of energy without using oxygen: C6O12O6-> Energy + lactic acid. Exercise will cause the brain to increase the number of brain signals to the heart. This will cause an increase in the heart rate. The heart rate shows how hard you are working and which energy system is being used. The fastest the heart can beat is called your maximum heart rate, and can be calculated using the formula: maximum heart rate = 220 minus your age. If the heart rate is about 60 per cent of your maximum heart rate, you are working aerobically. The actual rate is measured by taking the pulse. How fit an individual wants to be will depend on working within a range of heart rates, which is the target zones. Therefore, you must train above a minimum heart rate of 60 per cent of your maximum to gain fitness. Exercise below this will gain no aerobic benefits. This means, you must exercise below an upper limit. Once the heart rate rises above a certain point you are doing anaerobic work and lactic acid will build up and cause pain. The aerobic range should be anywhere between 70 per cent-85 per cent of the maximum heart rate. You must exercise below this point to gain aerobic benefits. This is called your aerobic training zone. The heart rates at the limits of the zone are called the training thresholds. The lower limit is the aerobic threshold. The upper limit is anaerobic threshold. An unfit person should be working at 60 per cent – 70 per cent of their maximum heart rate, a fitter person at 65-75 per cent, and a fit person at 75-85 per cent. For aerobic training, choose an activity which involves the large muscles of the body, e.g. walking, swimming, jogging, cycling etc. Work for at least 15 to 20 minutes per session at least three times per week. Work at least 60 per cent of the maximum heart rate within your aerobic training zone. Weeks of aerobic training must be done before anaerobic training. Working at, or above, 85 per cent of the maximum heart rate means you are working anaerobically. AEROBIC TRAINING EFFECTS OF – The heart grows larger, its walls gets thicker, blood volume increases. More capillaries grow, fat is burned more readily; lower resting heart rate and larger arteries, leading to lower blood pressure. – Increased fitness of lungs and respiratory system, leading to stronger rib muscles and diaphragm. Therefore the chest gets bigger during inhalation, the lungs expands further, facilitating more air and more oxygen is picked up, preventing easy tiring. – Training at high altitude (eg. in Mexico City) makes the aerobic changes described above happen very quickly and is good for anaerobic events (sprints, jumps, throws). Most training effects that take place in the muscles happen as a result of our muscles having to work without oxygen during anaerobic activities. Therefore, the actual development will include muscle hypertrophy. The muscles become larger as the individual muscle fibres grow thicker, fast-twitch muscle fibres increase in size and become more efficient in coping with lactic acid before becoming tired, the muscle cells store greater amount of ATP creatine phosphate and glycogen, and the chemical reaction in the muscles that produce energy increases in quantity, speed and efficiency. Weight training also causes muscle hypertrophy. Muscle strength increases when very heavy weight is lifted for few repetitions. Muscle power increases when heavy weight is lifted for a number of fast repetitions. Muscle endurance increases when light weights are lifted for many repetitions. Muscle Atrophy will occur when the muscles become inactive. Therefore, they become smaller and weaker. Muscle atrophy usually happens when the athlete is out of training as a result of injury. Be reminded that when lifting weights you should know your onerepetition maximum (1 RM) in order to guide the following: – Maximum strength – at least three sets of six reps at near maximum weight – Muscular power – at least three sets of 10-15, using 60-80 per cent of 1 RM – Muscular endurance – at least three sets of 20-30 reps using 40-60 per cent of 1 RM.
In regards to complacency, Anton urged even successful publishers to continue to strive to be better. “Too many companies are making money and don’t care if their publication is the number one, number two or number three book in their segment. I don’t get that,” he said. “Being competitive and winning is fun. Be restless. Work hard to be the best.” Even in the face of a down real estate market, b-to-b residential housing and commercial construction publishing giant Hanley Wood is maintaining an aggressive business strategy. During a luncheon keynote at the Folio: Publishing Summit last month, CEO Frank Anton unveiled what he calls the “10 deadly sins” that have b-to-b companies in a “spiral of purgatory” in a down economy.Anton outlined the sins—underperformance, cowardice, technophobia, inferiority, complacency, coziness, stinginess, cluelessness, disorganization and dullness—with examples from Anton’s own experience in leading Hanley Wood.“Fear of failure for many outweighs the satisfaction of success,” Anton said of the ‘cowardice’ sin. “Try things. Take chances. To grow a company you need to take risks. Sometimes you’ll fail but try. Learn. We like to succeed but we also embrace failure.” Anton recalled how in 1999 and 2000 Hanley Wood got $40 million from VSS to invest in online development but lost it in the dot-com crash. Trade publishers that have underinvested in electronic media are now playing catch-up—and are paying the price, Anton said in reference to his ‘technophobia’ sin. Hanley Wood’s online advertising has seen growth over the last couple of years, and Anton expects that revenue to grow 40 percent this year, he said.
JSM Corp Ltd, which has Hard Rock CafÃ© franchisee in India, is planning to raise Rs. 200 crore from private equity investors. The funds raised would be used to expand the number of outlets and bring in more international brands.The company, which also runs popular restaurant chains California Pizza Kitchen and Shiro in India, is considering fund raising by older investors selling their shares. Lodha Capital Markets is acting as the company’s adviser. As part of the company’s expansion plans, JSM would launch popular Chinese food chain Panda Express in India by August 2016, the Mint reported.”About Rs. 150 crore will be raised primarily from new investors, while Rs. 50 crore will be a secondary transaction where the legacy investors will be brought over,” Jay Sing, co-founder and executive director of JSM, was quoted as saying by the publication.JSM Corp was founded by Jay Singh and Sanjay Mahtani in 2004. Some of the other brands of the company are The Big Kahuna, Ginger Tiger, dessert chain Pinkberry, street-food chain Plus91 and Asilo, which is a rooftop bar in Mumbai, according to the company’s website. Singh and Mahtani together hold 55 percent stake in JSM Corp, while the rest is owned by other investors.Azim Premji’s private equity arm, PremjiInvest, acquired 22 percent stake in JSM for about Rs. 150 crore four years ago. The same PE firm may put in additional funds, Singh was quoted as saying by the Mint.A report by consulting firm Grant Thornton India and the Federation of Indian Chambers and Commerce Industry (FICCI) said the Indian food and beverage industry will expand at a pace of 24 percent every year to reach Rs. 3.8 trillion in sales by March 2017.[1 lakh = 100,000 | 1 crore = 10 million | 100 crore = 1 billion]
policeIn the latest promotion in the police administration, 96 additional superintendents of police (SPs) have been elevated to the rank of superintendent of police, reports UNB.The home ministry issued a notification on Thursday in this regard.According to the notification signed by deputy secretary Md Ilias Hossain of the home ministry, the order will come into immediate effect.