Jennifer Ellison-Brown: The body’s response to training

first_img ENERGY SYSTEMS When the body starts to do physical activities a number of changes take place. The exact amount of change will depend on the intensity and duration of the activity. As mentioned in earlier topics, regular training will result in adaptation of our bodies. The type of training undertaken determines what adaptations or responses are effected. Most sports are a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic work. Training makes both energy systems better. However, the training is different for each. Aerobic respiration is the production of energy using oxygen: (C6H12O6 + O2-> CO2 + water +energy). Anaerobic respiration is the production of energy without using oxygen: C6O12O6-> Energy + lactic acid. Exercise will cause the brain to increase the number of brain signals to the heart. This will cause an increase in the heart rate. The heart rate shows how hard you are working and which energy system is being used. The fastest the heart can beat is called your maximum heart rate, and can be calculated using the formula: maximum heart rate = 220 minus your age. If the heart rate is about 60 per cent of your maximum heart rate, you are working aerobically. The actual rate is measured by taking the pulse. How fit an individual wants to be will depend on working within a range of heart rates, which is the target zones. Therefore, you must train above a minimum heart rate of 60 per cent of your maximum to gain fitness. Exercise below this will gain no aerobic benefits. This means, you must exercise below an upper limit. Once the heart rate rises above a certain point you are doing anaerobic work and lactic acid will build up and cause pain. The aerobic range should be anywhere between 70 per cent-85 per cent of the maximum heart rate. You must exercise below this point to gain aerobic benefits. This is called your aerobic training zone. The heart rates at the limits of the zone are called the training thresholds. The lower limit is the aerobic threshold. The upper limit is anaerobic threshold. An unfit person should be working at 60 per cent – 70 per cent of their maximum heart rate, a fitter person at 65-75 per cent, and a fit person at 75-85 per cent. For aerobic training, choose an activity which involves the large muscles of the body, e.g. walking, swimming, jogging, cycling etc. Work for at least 15 to 20 minutes per session at least three times per week. Work at least 60 per cent of the maximum heart rate within your aerobic training zone. Weeks of aerobic training must be done before anaerobic training. Working at, or above, 85 per cent of the maximum heart rate means you are working anaerobically. AEROBIC TRAININGcenter_img EFFECTS OF – The heart grows larger, its walls gets thicker, blood volume increases. More capillaries grow, fat is burned more readily; lower resting heart rate and larger arteries, leading to lower blood pressure. – Increased fitness of lungs and respiratory system, leading to stronger rib muscles and diaphragm. Therefore the chest gets bigger during inhalation, the lungs expands further, facilitating more air and more oxygen is picked up, preventing easy tiring. – Training at high altitude (eg. in Mexico City) makes the aerobic changes described above happen very quickly and is good for anaerobic events (sprints, jumps, throws). Most training effects that take place in the muscles happen as a result of our muscles having to work without oxygen during anaerobic activities. Therefore, the actual development will include muscle hypertrophy. The muscles become larger as the individual muscle fibres grow thicker, fast-twitch muscle fibres increase in size and become more efficient in coping with lactic acid before becoming tired, the muscle cells store greater amount of ATP creatine phosphate and glycogen, and the chemical reaction in the muscles that produce energy increases in quantity, speed and efficiency. Weight training also causes muscle hypertrophy. Muscle strength increases when very heavy weight is lifted for few repetitions. Muscle power increases when heavy weight is lifted for a number of fast repetitions. Muscle endurance increases when light weights are lifted for many repetitions. Muscle Atrophy will occur when the muscles become inactive. Therefore, they become smaller and weaker. Muscle atrophy usually happens when the athlete is out of training as a result of injury. Be reminded that when lifting weights you should know your onerepetition maximum (1 RM) in order to guide the following: – Maximum strength – at least three sets of six reps at near maximum weight – Muscular power – at least three sets of 10-15, using 60-80 per cent of 1 RM – Muscular endurance – at least three sets of 20-30 reps using 40-60 per cent of 1 RM.last_img read more

Rooibos now on everyone’s lips

first_img30 June 2005After 10 years and over R6-million in legal fees, Rooibos Ltd has won the battle over ownership of the generic term “rooibos”, according to a company statement. The name of the tea, an everyday word in South Africa, was registered as a trademark in the US by Forever Young Ltd in 1994.According to the settlement agreement announced on Wednesday, Forever Young and the new owner of the trademark, Virginia Burke-Watkins, voluntarily and unconditionally agreed to the cancellation of their registration of the word “rooibos” in the US and various other countries. “Rooibos” is Afrikaans for “red bush”.The tea is grown only in the Cedarberg area of the Western Cape, about 200 kilometres north of Cape Town. There is no alternative source of supply anywhere in the world.Rooibos Ltd was the main driving force behind the case, with help from the national and Western Cape governments. A tea-processing and marketing company owned by farmers, Rooibos Ltd is the largest producer and marketer of rooibos internationally, handling about 70% of sales.“The livelihood of all rooibos farmers as well as tea manufacturers was threatened by this name-registration issue,” said Martin Bergh, managing director of Rooibos Ltd. “We had to do something about it.”In 1994, Forever Young registered the name “rooibos” in the US and numerous other countries, restricting the use the word to only those willing to do business with the company. In 2001, Forever Young sold the registration to Virginia Burke-Watkins of Dallas, Texas.Business Day reports that in 2004, Burke-Watkins sent letters to rooibos distributors in the US, insisting they stop using the term in their marketing material and demanding $5 000 (over R30 000) compensation from them.This year a Missouri district court ruled that rooibos was a generic term, the newspaper reports, and could not be used as a trademark. Burke-Watkins lodged an appeal, and the hearing was expected to take place in 2006. Rooibos Ltd also brought an application to the US patents and trademarks office to cancel the registration.Bergh told Business Day the direct implication of the judgment was that distributors would be able to use the term without having to pay. The indirect effect would be that distributors, who were not investing in marketing in the US because of the uncertainty over the name, would now start building up their market.Rooibos sales in the US are worth an estimated R70-million at retail level, Bergh said. That compares with about R300-million of retail sales value in South Africa.According to Business Day, Germany is the biggest market for rooibos tea, importing more than South Africa consumes.Bergh told the newspaper that although rooibos tea is a dryland – not irrigated – product and vulnerable to weather conditions, the industry produces about 9 000 to 10 000 tons of the tea a year, which could easily be doubled.The cost of the case to Rooibos Ltd has been astronomical. Because the lawsuit was in the interest of the entire rooibos-producing industry, it was decided to approach the South African government for financial assistance and support. The Department of Trade and Industry pledged R2-million, and the Western Cape provincial government R250 000.The red bushRooibos is a caffeine-free herbal tea with numerous scientifically tested health benefits. It is one of the many indigenous South African plants that make up the Cape Floristic Region. A world biodiversity hotspot and one of South Africa’s six World Heritage sites, the region has more plant species than the whole of the British Isles or New Zealand.Overall sales of rooibos in the US climbed from just over $1-billion (R6.7-billion) in 1993 to about $5.1-billion (R34.1-billion) in 2003, according to the Tea Council of the US.“Rooibos sales in America, in spite of the registered name obstacle, have quadrupled every year since 1999,” says Hugh Lamond, president of California-based Herbal Teas International.Rooibos has a delicate flavour as well as documented health benefits from polyphenols and antioxidants, which may delay the ageing process and help protect against heart attack and certain types of cancer.Many varieties of rooibos teas are available in grocery, speciality and natural food stores throughout the US, Canada, Europe and Japan. Rooibos Ltd also exports the tea to manufacturers and wholesalers in the US and Canada.SouthAfrica.info reporterlast_img read more

Nelson Mandela books: a selection

first_imgThe world’s authors – from biographers and journalists to friends and comrades – have found compelling stories to tell about Nelson Rohlihlahla Mandela and a life lived with courage and conviction.Mandela: The Authorised Portrait, draws on 60 original interviews with family members, close friends, colleagues, former comrades and many of the world’s leading figures in politics and entertainment. (Image: Nelson Mandela Foundation)Brand South Africa reporter Here’s a selection of some of the best books about the man we call Madiba:A Long Walk to FreedomBy Nelson Mandela. Macdonald Purnell: 1994“I can rest only for a moment, for with freedom come responsibilities and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not ended.’Madiba’s autobiography was begun in prison, worked on for several months after his release in 1990, and finally published in 1994. At almost 700 pages, it is a hefty but compelling read in which Mandela traces his journey from the Transkei to his inauguration as the first president of a democratic South Africa. A movie based on the book, starring British actor Idris Elba as the Nobel Peace prize winner, was released in December 2013.Young Mandela: The Revolutionary YearsBy David James Smith. Little, Brown: 2010English journalist and author James Smith tells the story of Mandela’s youth and his rise within the ANC before his imprisonment in 1964.(Image supplied)Conversations With MyselfBy Nelson Mandela. Farrar, Straus and Giroux: 2010Drawn from Mandela’s personal archive, this is an in-depth and thoroughly indexed collection of letters, journal entries, meditations and recorded private conversations, including diaries and draft letters written in Robben Island and notebooks from the post-apartheid transition. Foreword by US President Barack Obama. Has been translated into French and Portuguese.Read more: Book brings Mandela’s quotes to life Nelson Mandela as life-long activistMandela book translations a hitMandela: The Authorised BiographyBy Anthony Sampson. Updated by John Battersby, HarperCollins: 2011Sampson, a former editor of Drum magazine and a long-time friend of Mandela, depicts the realities of the global leader’s private and public life. Originally published in 1999, it has recently been updated by South African journalist, John Battersby.The World That Made Mandela: A Heritage Trail – 70 Sites of SignificanceBy Luli Callinicos. David Krut, 2000Bringing history and geography together, historian Luli Callinicos’ book is filled with archival and contemporary images telling Mandela’s story through the many places associated with his life. From his birthplace in Qunu to the Old Fort in Johannesburg, where he was held prisoner (and which is now the site of the Constitutional Court), from Soweto to Mpumalanga, the images provide a historical context for South Africa today, combining to form a unique “heritage trail”.A Prisoner in the GardenBy Sarah Groves. Penguin: 2005Visually documents the 27 years Mandela spent in prison on Robben Island, including previously unpublished photographs as well as diary and letter extracts.Mandela: The Authorised PortraitBy Mac Maharaj, Mike Nicol, Ahmad Kathrada, Tim Couzens. Bloomsbury: 2006Draws on 60 original interviews with family members, close friends, colleagues, former comrades and many of the world’s leading figures in politics and entertainment. Foreword by former US president Bill Clinton and introduction by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Illustrated with 250 images.Nelson Mandela’s WardersBy Mike Nicol. Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory: 2011Examines the nature of the relationship between Mandela and three of the warders who claimed a close relationship with him during his 27 years in prison. James Gregory, Christo Brand and Jack Swart all remained in contact with Mandela after his release.Download the publication as a PDF from www.nelsonmandela.orgRead more: The story of Mandela’s wardersNelson Mandela: A Life in CartoonsBy Harry Dugmore, Stephen Francis and Rico. David Philip: 1999Documents an extraordinary life in more than 150 of the world’s finest cartoons about Mandela.Mandela’s Way: Lessons on Life, Love, and CourageBy Richard Stengel. Virgin Books, 2010American journalist and now editor of Time magazine, Stengel collaborated with Mandela on The Long Walk to Freedom. Here, he revisits an old friend – and distils 15 “core truths” about Mandela’s life. This is much more than a book about Mandela: in its review, the Financial Times described it as the “ultimate manual on leadership and on how to manage a dysfunctional organisation”.(Image supplied)Nelson Mandela By Himself: The Authorised Book of QuotationsNelson Mandela Foundation, 2011While collections of Mandela’s quotes abound, this is the first authorised, fully referenced record of his “most important and inspiring” quotations. Spanning 60 years, the 2 000 quotations are organised into more than 300 categories, such as courage, optimism and democracy.Read more: Nelson Mandela: in his own wordsIn the Words of Nelson MandelaBy Jennifer Crwys-Williams (editor). Walker & Company: 2011A compilation of aphorisms drawn from Madiba’s speeches, interviews, books and court reports. First published in 1999.Invictus: Nelson Mandela and the Game that Made a NationBy John Carlin. Penguin: 2008A fascinating account of South Africa’s journey to victory in the 1994 World Cup. The story reveals Mandela’s wily strategy to use sport to heal the nation. Don’t miss the movie, starring Matt Damon and Morgan Freeman, which captures the spirit of the time perfectly.Ukutya Kwasekhaya: Tastes from Nelson Mandela’s KitchenBy Xoliswa Ndoyiya. Real African Publishers: 2011.Xoliswa Ndoyiya was Nelson Mandela’s personal cook for 20 years. In Ukutya kwasekhaya (“home food” in isiXhosa), she shares 60 of Mandela’s favourite recipes, as well as belly-warming food-related anecdotes.Read more: The simple palate of Nelson MandelaHunger for Freedom: the story of food in the Life of Nelson MandelaBy Anna Trapido. Jacana Media: 2008Examines the role that food has played throughout Mandela’s life: from his childhood and years in prison, to during and after his time as president. Trapido unearths fascinating and humanising stories, noting that in prison Mandela would speak about freedom as he spoke about food.Read more: Mandela’s story told in mealsFor childrenNelson Mandela: the Authorised Comic BookNelson Mandela Foundation, Umlando Wezithombe, Jonathan Ball Publishers: 2009Excellent and fully authorised graphic biography. Expanded from a series of eight comics to help children learn about Nelson Mandela. The golden artwork is by a Johannesburg-based collective, Umlando Wezithombe.Read more: Nelson Mandela – comic book hero(Image supplied)Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (children’s edition)Abridged by Chris van Wyk, Paddy Bouma (illustrator). Macmillan: 2009Simple and powerful picture book, abridged from Mandela’s 1994 autobiography.Tree Shaker: The Story of Nelson MandelaBy Bill Keller. Kingfisher: 2008A tightly and interesting written profile of Mandela by the former New York Times Johannesburg bureau chief, Bill Keller. Includes articles from the Times, as well as an excellent selection of photographs.Nelson Mandela’s Favorite African FolktalesNelson Mandela (editor): 2007Collection of 32 “beloved stories, morsels rich with the gritty essence of Africa”. Numerous authors and bright illustrations by a diverse range of artists. Legends and folk tales from all over the continent. The award-winning audio version is worth seeking out, with contributions from actors such as Whoopi Goldberg, Blair Underwood, Sean Hayes, Matt Damon, Benjamin Bratt, LaVar Burton, Hugh Jackman and Samuel L Jackson.Website: www.mandelasfavouritefolktales.comReviewed: December 2013Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.last_img read more

Mobile Gaming Audience is Younger, Has Strong Female Presence

first_imgRelated Posts Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement A new report from mobile analytics firm Flurry takes a look at the demographics of the mobile social gaming audience as compared with traditional console gamers – that is, those who use TV-connected gaming consoles like the Xbox 360, PlayStation and Wii. According to the firm (and other data pulled from the Electronic Software Association), the mobile social gaming audience tends to be younger, more female and has better access to disposable income than traditional gamers.In the charts provided, Flurry shows how the age and gender demographics are divvied up between the various platforms. On mobile phones, the average gamer age is 28, compared with 34 on consoles. Mobile gamers are also more heavily female (53%) than traditional gamers (only 40% female). More importantly (well, to game publishers at least), is the fact that there’s a greater density in the 18-49 demographic on mobile than on traditional platforms. That means more disposable income. Says Flurry: “iOS and Android devices are attracting users during their earning years versus, in particular their teenage years, where they likely cannot afford more expensive mobile devices.”Remarkably, the audience for mobile gaming is also very, very large – larger, in fact, than the worldwide install base of console game leaders (Wii, Xbox, PlayStation) combined. That traditional console audience is estimated at 180 million. Mobile gaming is even larger than portable gaming (Nintendo DS and Sony PSP), estimated at 200 million. And it’s larger than primetime TV watching, too, as has been reported previously – as any given primetime TV show can top just 20 million viewers.So how large is it? Flurry says it alone detects 250 million unique devices with over 750,000 coming online daily. It has seen over 300 million user sessions across all its games and apps, 37% of which are from games alone. But Flurry is only seeing a portion of the overall market – it only sees those devices where apps using Flurry’s services are running. But it extrapolated from a sample of its users (around 60,000+ users) who self-reported age, gender and location to take a look at audience demographics in more detail – specifically, U.S. mobile gamer demographics.You can see those findings in the charts below. sarah perez What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Tags:#Android#mobile#NYT#Trends The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

JON Wilkin has been named as England Captain for t

first_imgJON Wilkin has been named as England Captain for this Wednesday’s International Origin Game Two.England coach Steve McNamara today confirmed debuts for Warrington Wolves utility back Stefan Ratchford while Danny Brough of Huddersfield Giants and Salford City Reds’ Matty Smith will form a new-look half-back partnership, with Hull KR prop Scott Taylor starting from the bench.Wilkin will captain the team after Jamie Peacock’s retirement last month and will partner Leeds Rhinos second row Carl Ablett with Jamie Jones-Buchanan of Leeds starting at loose forward.“We have a young, hungry side that will take on the Exiles on Wednesday,” said national coach McNamara. “We have made a number of changes from the first game and it is an exciting opportunity to see some real quality young players coming in and staking a claim for a regular place in the side.”McNamara is also looking forward to see how Brough and Smith cut it at this level forming a new half-back combination.“Matty (Smith) and Danny (Brough) really excite me,” added McNamara. “They have been in tremendous form in the Stobart Super League and I know they have the ability to step up and perform at this level. They will complement each other’s skills and can form a devastating partnership.”Tickets for the International Origin Series Game 2 fixture between England and the Exiles at Galpharm Stadium, Huddersfield, on Wednesday July 4 (7.45pm) cost from £21 (£10 concessions) and can be purchased through the RFL Ticket office on 0844 856 1113 or by visiting www.rugbyleaguetickets.co.ukEngland: Stefan Ratchford; Josh Charnley, Leroy Cudjoe, Ryan Atkins, Tom Briscoe; Matty Smith, Danny Brough; Eorl Crabtree, James Roby, Garreth Carvell, Carl Ablett, Jon Wilkin, Jamie Jones-Buchanan.Subs: Rob Burrow, Liam Farrell, Lee Mossop, Scott Taylor.last_img read more

Google to shutdown Gtalk services from today replaces it with Hangouts

first_imgAdvertisement From today on-wards Gtalk will nolonger be functional since Google is shutting down the Gtalk services and forcing its users to embrace Hangouts.Google had announced it few weeks ago that it would shut its Gtalk services from today. Although Google’s Hangouts is not as popular as WhatsApp, Hike, WeChat, and others, but the search engine giant sees its future in Hangouts.Google had last year replaced Gtalk with Hangouts and the users who would download Gtalk were redirected to Google Hangouts download page. Now Google has made it quite clear that Gtalk will no longer be functioning from February 16. – Advertisement – Most users are used to the familiar Gtalk interface, which is also believed to work better than Google Hangouts even on slow internet connections.Were you still using Gtalk? Let us know in the comments section below.last_img read more