CENTURION, South Africa (AP):Fast bowler Kagiso Rabada’s career-best 7-112 set South Africa up for a big lead over England in the fourth Test yesterday. Rabada rattled through England’s top and middle order as the tourists were bowled out for 342 after South Africa’s 475.South Africa stretched their lead to 175 when bad light stopped play on the third day at SuperSport Park, reaching 42-1 in their second innings.Rabada’s rich return, which included a burst of three wickets in two overs just before lunch, put South Africa in position for a desperately needed win to regain some lost pride.England have already clinched the four-match series with a 2-0 lead ahead of this last Test. South Africa haven’t won in their previous nine Tests, leaving newcomer Rabada without a victory in his young career.”I don’t think I’ve arrived yet,” he said. “There’s still lots of work to be done. (But) It felt good to take those seven wickets.”
Tivoli Gardens FC will start life under popular returning coach Glendon ‘Admiral’ Bailey when they face fellow relegation strugglers, Rivoli United, in a rescheduled Red Stripe Premier League (RSPL) game at the Edward Seaga Sport Complex today at 3 p.m. But Bailey, who insists he is not back to stay and is only trying to help the club out of their present predicament, has warned fans not to expect too much from today’s game, as he has only had a couple days with the squad. “To be realistic I cannot tell you what to look forward to tomorrow’s (today’s) game. This is my first game, I just started Monday and there is a lot of work still to be done, so we have to give it time,” he told The Gleaner yesterday. He added: “There is a lot of work to be done and you cannot do that amount of work in one day. So right now realistically I cannot say what to expect. “I am sorry I didn’t really have a week but if we get in the work the more we will progress and the more they will realise what I expect and want from them,” he added.. Tivoli are bottom of the 12 team standings with 20 points, while Rivoli (22) are two points and two places ahead in tenth.
ENERGY SYSTEMS When the body starts to do physical activities a number of changes take place. The exact amount of change will depend on the intensity and duration of the activity. As mentioned in earlier topics, regular training will result in adaptation of our bodies. The type of training undertaken determines what adaptations or responses are effected. Most sports are a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic work. Training makes both energy systems better. However, the training is different for each. Aerobic respiration is the production of energy using oxygen: (C6H12O6 + O2-> CO2 + water +energy). Anaerobic respiration is the production of energy without using oxygen: C6O12O6-> Energy + lactic acid. Exercise will cause the brain to increase the number of brain signals to the heart. This will cause an increase in the heart rate. The heart rate shows how hard you are working and which energy system is being used. The fastest the heart can beat is called your maximum heart rate, and can be calculated using the formula: maximum heart rate = 220 minus your age. If the heart rate is about 60 per cent of your maximum heart rate, you are working aerobically. The actual rate is measured by taking the pulse. How fit an individual wants to be will depend on working within a range of heart rates, which is the target zones. Therefore, you must train above a minimum heart rate of 60 per cent of your maximum to gain fitness. Exercise below this will gain no aerobic benefits. This means, you must exercise below an upper limit. Once the heart rate rises above a certain point you are doing anaerobic work and lactic acid will build up and cause pain. The aerobic range should be anywhere between 70 per cent-85 per cent of the maximum heart rate. You must exercise below this point to gain aerobic benefits. This is called your aerobic training zone. The heart rates at the limits of the zone are called the training thresholds. The lower limit is the aerobic threshold. The upper limit is anaerobic threshold. An unfit person should be working at 60 per cent – 70 per cent of their maximum heart rate, a fitter person at 65-75 per cent, and a fit person at 75-85 per cent. For aerobic training, choose an activity which involves the large muscles of the body, e.g. walking, swimming, jogging, cycling etc. Work for at least 15 to 20 minutes per session at least three times per week. Work at least 60 per cent of the maximum heart rate within your aerobic training zone. Weeks of aerobic training must be done before anaerobic training. Working at, or above, 85 per cent of the maximum heart rate means you are working anaerobically. AEROBIC TRAINING EFFECTS OF – The heart grows larger, its walls gets thicker, blood volume increases. More capillaries grow, fat is burned more readily; lower resting heart rate and larger arteries, leading to lower blood pressure. – Increased fitness of lungs and respiratory system, leading to stronger rib muscles and diaphragm. Therefore the chest gets bigger during inhalation, the lungs expands further, facilitating more air and more oxygen is picked up, preventing easy tiring. – Training at high altitude (eg. in Mexico City) makes the aerobic changes described above happen very quickly and is good for anaerobic events (sprints, jumps, throws). Most training effects that take place in the muscles happen as a result of our muscles having to work without oxygen during anaerobic activities. Therefore, the actual development will include muscle hypertrophy. The muscles become larger as the individual muscle fibres grow thicker, fast-twitch muscle fibres increase in size and become more efficient in coping with lactic acid before becoming tired, the muscle cells store greater amount of ATP creatine phosphate and glycogen, and the chemical reaction in the muscles that produce energy increases in quantity, speed and efficiency. Weight training also causes muscle hypertrophy. Muscle strength increases when very heavy weight is lifted for few repetitions. Muscle power increases when heavy weight is lifted for a number of fast repetitions. Muscle endurance increases when light weights are lifted for many repetitions. Muscle Atrophy will occur when the muscles become inactive. Therefore, they become smaller and weaker. Muscle atrophy usually happens when the athlete is out of training as a result of injury. Be reminded that when lifting weights you should know your onerepetition maximum (1 RM) in order to guide the following: – Maximum strength – at least three sets of six reps at near maximum weight – Muscular power – at least three sets of 10-15, using 60-80 per cent of 1 RM – Muscular endurance – at least three sets of 20-30 reps using 40-60 per cent of 1 RM.